Hedging is a type of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Hedging is a type of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a amount that is suitable of can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It also helps to indicate the standard of certainty we now have with regards to the data or support.

Compare the following two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will notice that although the two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has an important amount of extra language round the claim. A amount that is large of language is performing the purpose of ‘hedging’.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). How many differences do you realy see in the text that is second? What is the function/effect/purpose of every difference?

You will probably observe that (B) is more ‘academic’, however it is important to comprehend why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to enhance their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) appears to indicate that, for a significant proportion of students, extensive reading may contribute to a noticable difference inside their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study involved learners aged 15-16 within the UK, although it could be applicable to other groups. However, the study involved an sample that is opt-in which means that the sample students might have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It will be beneficial to see perhaps the findings differ in a wider sample.

(Please note that Yen (2005) is a fictional reference used only for example).

The table below provides some situations of language to utilize when making knowledge claims.

Try to find types of hedging language in your own reading, to add to this table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree

2) Appearance

appears to
has the looks of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay in line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is in a position to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a simpler way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Within the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

could be described as
could be considered to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is oftentimes used to mean
the term can be used to refer to
this may indicate that …
this may declare that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

IOE Writing Centre Online

Self-access resources through the Academic Writing Centre in the UCL Institute of Education.

Still need help? Ask and answer questions on academic writing on our Moodle forum:
Q & A Forum

Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, however they are the way that is easiest to publish an extended answer.
In this lesson, we will have a look at just how to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you will really be pay for essay writing about

Come up with the ideas that will reply to your question


Re-write exacltly what the ideas are and say why you have answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start going through how an essay works, we must proceed through three terms that we will use to describe everything you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all of the main points you are likely to write on in your essay.
Keywords = words that are important areas of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of one’s essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We shall go through some examples in a second.

Basic Introduction

To create your introduction, follow these steps. Each one of these steps means you begin a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, are the name of text(s) and author(s)
  • Write a one sentence answer (definition)
  • List all of the main points of the argument

Exemplory case of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs are unable to fly. (Re-write of question)
they can not fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
These are typically too heavy to float, they don’t have wings or propellers, plus they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

Your body forms most of one’s essay.
It will be the most important section of each essay you write.
Within your body, you need to argue your entire points that are main explain why they answr fully your question.
Each main point must certanly be in a paragraph that is new.

Each main point should always be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph ought to be put down such as this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your own introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and give explanations why.
  • Evidence: Proof you will get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It will prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the main point so you can easily go to the next.

Exemplory case of a physical body Paragraph

Pigs are way too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight mean that they may not be able to float, which is a good way a creature can fly. To float a pig will have to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and because of this weight, it is not lighter than air. (Evidence)
This is exactly why, a pig is not able to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you’ve got printed in your body paragraph.
It should ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they not able to go into the air, and therefore cannot fly.

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